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Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. The sports medicine "team" includes specialty physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, as well as the athlete himself/herself. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field.
Sports medicine has always been difficult to define because it is not a single specialty, but an area that involves health care professionals, researchers and educators from a wide variety of disciplines. Its function is not only curative and rehabilitative, but especially preventive.
Despite this wide scope, there has been a tendency for many to assume that sport-related problems are by default musculoskeletal and that sports medicine is an orthopaedic specialty. There is much more to sports medicine than just musculoskeletal diagnosis and treatment. Illness or injury in sport can be caused by many factors – from environmental to physiological and psychological. Consequently, sports medicine can encompass an array of specialties, including cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, rehabilitation medicine, orthopaedic surgery, nutrition, podiatry, dentistry, opthamology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, and traumatology. For example, heat, cold or altitude during training and competition can alter performance or may even be life threatening. The female triad of disordered eating, menstrual disturbances, and bone density problems, and the problems of pregnant or aging athletes demand knowledge from many diverse fields. In addition, the management of endocrinological diseases and other such problems in the athlete demands both medical expertise and sport-specific knowledge.
The use of supplements, pharmacological or otherwise, and the topics of doping control and gender verification present complex moral, legal and health-related difficulties. Further unique problems are associated with international sporting events, such as the effects of travel and acclimatization, and the attempt to balance an athlete's participation with his or her health. Much of this draws on new fields of study, in which extensive clinical and basic science research is burgeoning.
Sports medicine in the United States Edit
The Sports Medicine specialist, either an orthopedist or a primary care sports medicine specialist, is usually the leader of the sports medicine team, which also includes physician and surgeon specialists, physiologists, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.
For primary care sports medicine, doctors wishing to specialize start with a primary residency program in family practice, internal medicine, emergency medicine, pediatrics or physical medicine and rehabilitation. Then, they generally obtain one to two years of additional training through accredited fellowship (subspecialty) programs in sports medicine. Physicians who are board certified in one of the preceding displines are then eligible to take a subspecialty qualification examination in sports medicine. Additional forums, which add to the expertise of a Sports Medicine Specialist, include continuing education in sports medicine, and membership and participation in sports medicine societies.
Sports medicine has been a recognized subspecialty of the American Board of Medical Specialties since 1989. Currently there are more than 70 sports medicine fellowships and approximately one thousand certified Sports Medicine Specialists in the United States.
The origins of sports medicine lie in ancient Greece and ancient Rome where physical education was a needed aspect of youth – training and athletic contests first became a part of everyday life during these times. However, it was not until in 1928 at the Olympics in St. Moritz, when a committee came together to plan the First International Congress of Sports Medicine, that the term itself was coined. In the 5th century, however, the care of athletes was primarily the responsibility of specialists. These were trainer-coaches and were considered to be experts on diet, physical therapy, and hygiene as well as on sport-specific techniques.
The future of sports medicineEdit
According to the director of The Institute for Preventative Medicine in Michigan, prevention is sports medicine's final frontier. The risk of injury will never be entirely eliminated, but modifications in training techniques, equipment, sports venues and rules, based on outcomes of meaningful research have shown that it can be lowered.
One rapidly advancing field with great potential for applications in prevention is the study of the body's neuromuscular adaptations. A study of specific preseason neuromuscular training for soccer players demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears. In another investigation by Janda et al., serious injuries in recreational softball were reduced by 98% when breakaway bases were used.
Participation in all forms of physical activity at all levels is a huge part of everyday life, and its benefits to health and quality of life are clear. Sports medicine's continued growth and development may help the benefits of physical activity to be fully and safely realized.
See also Edit
- Athletic trainer
- Augustus Thorndike
- Sports injuries
- Sports nutrition
- Sports training
- National Academy of Sports Medicine
- Board of Certification, Inc.
- American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine Promotes education to professionals and the public, and support for research on podiatric sports medicine and sports science.
- American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine AOSSM members are physicians and allied health professionals who demonstrate scientific leadership, involvement and dedication in the daily practice of sports medicine.
- American College of Sports Medicine advances and integrates scientific research to provide educational and practical applications of exercise science and sports medicine.
- American Medical Society for Sports Medicine to foster a collegial relationship among dedicated, competent sports medicine specialists, to provide a quality educational resource for AMSSM members, other sports medicine professionals, and the general public.
- Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine advance the art and science of sport medicine, including health promotion and disease prevention, for the benefit of all Canadians through programs of education, research and service.
- The Fédération Internationale de Médecine du Sport (FIMS)/International Federation of Sports Medicine is an international organisation with a common involvement with sports medicine on all continents. FIMS aims primarily to promote the study and development of sports medicine throughout the world, and to assist athletes in achieving optimal performance by maximising their genetic potential, health, nutrition, and high-quality medical care and training.
- National Academy of Sports Medicine Since 1987, the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) has been the recognized global leader in certification, continuing education, solutions and tools for the health, fitness, sports performance and sports medicine professionals. Today, NASM serves more than 100,000 members in 80 countries. In addition to its evidence-based NCCA-accredited fitness certification program, Certified Personal Trainer (CPT), NASM also offers a progressive career track with Advanced Specializations, Continuing Education courses, and accredited Bachelor and Master Degree programs. The NASM educational continuum is designed to help today’s health and fitness professional enhance their career while empowering their clients to live healthier lives.
- National Athletic Trainers' Association
- The Biomechanics Lab - dedicated to spreading knowledge about biomechanics, kinesiology, sports medicine, strength and conditioning and much more!This website provides a medium for connection between indiviudals in the biomechanics field. Started by a Northeastern University student.
- RehabMatters RehabMatters specialises in sports injury and orthopaedic rehabilitation and is dedicated to the prevention and management of sports injuries and musculoskeletal problems. No matter if you've recently had a knee replacement for joint arthritis or if you're an elite athlete coming back from injury - rehabilitation is challenging. The RehabMatters Website can help you through this challenge with practical information to get the best possible outcome from your rehabilitation. The RehabMatters Website is designed to support the relationship between patients and their physicians and therapists and provides a range of evidence based rehabilitation topics and reviews of current opinion.
- Seacoast Orthopedics & Sports Medicine Learn about sports medicine and the various different treatments that are currently available using the latest cutting edge technology.
- California Orthopedic and Sports Therapy Rehabilitation Services Dozens of articles encompassing sports medicine, injury prevention, and rehabilitation.
- slaptear.com slaptear.com is a community driven sports medicine website. The shared experiences of the members build accurate profiles for recovery from a variety of injuries and surgical procedures. Pre op patients can learn all the little details that frequently are not discussed. Post op patients can compare their recovery patterns and determine if they are on the right track.
- The Institute for Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine Comprehensive management of orthopedic and sports medicine injuries
- injuredshoulder.com Learn about sports related injuries and how to treat them.